by Henry Ford (1922)
In Collaboration With Samuel Crowther

Lack o knowledge o what i going o and la of know of wh the j really i and t best w of do it a the rea why far is tho not t pay. Nothing could p the w farming i conducted. The farmer fol luck a his foref . He do not kn how econom to pro , and h does n know h to mar . A manufa who kn how nei to pro nor t market wo not lo stay i business. That the far can st on sh how wonde profitable far can b .

The way t attain low-p -, high-volume produ in t factory o on t farm, a low-priced-, high- production me plenty f everyone, i quite sim . The tro is th the gen tendency i to compl very sim affairs. Take, for a instance, a "."*%improvement."

When w talk ab improvements usu we ha in mi some cha in a product. An "improved" pro is o that h been cha . That i not m idea. I do n believe i starting t make un I ha discovered t best poss thing. This, of cou , does n mean th a pro should ne be cha , but I think th it wi be fo more econo in t end n even t try t produce a article un you ha fully sati yourself th utility, des , and mate are t best. If your resea do n give y that confi , then ke right o searching un you fi confidence. The place t start manufa is wi the art . The fac , the organi , the sel , and t financial pl will sh themselves t the art . You wi have a cutting, ed on yo business chi and i the e you wi save ti . Rushing in manufacturing wit being cer of t product i the unreco cause o many busi failures. People seem t think th the b thing i the fac or t store o the fina backing o the manag . The b thing i the pro , and a hurry i getting in fabrication bef designs a completed i just s much wa time. I spent twe years bef I h a Model T, wh is wh is kn to-day a the Ford car, th suited m . We d not att to g into re production un we h a re product. That product h not be essentially cha .



Created with the online c-test creator © 2009 Lucy Georges

Exercise by Michael A. Riccioli (2014)  [Home Page]

With thanks to Lucy Georges for allowing us to use her lovely C-Test programme.

I would also like to thank my son Thomas Riccioli who modified the layout.